Hengzhigang ancient tomb in Guangzhou

Archaeologists living in Guangzhou should have a sense of achievement when shoveling out ancient cultural relics. This year, ancient tombs were found in yunshanjie area, the front area of Guangzhou garden, during the construction of the project. After investigation and exploration, a total of 57 tombs from Han Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, nearly 500 pieces (sets) of pottery, bronze, iron, beads and other cultural relics were cleared up. On December 24, the reporter made a visit, and the staff said that the place was regarded as a treasure land of geomancy in ancient times.
On the hillock at the northeast corner of the junction of Hengfu road and Luhu Road, the reporter of the new Express newspaper saw the ancient tombs surrounded. At the scene, under the yellow soil of about 3000 square meters, various rectangular mausoleums appeared, among which the wooden coffin body had been rotten, leaving only the artifacts of the owner at that time for people to imagine; the brick and stone tomb still existed, and the characters and symbols engraved on it excited the researchers.
The most abundant cultural relics are found in the juxtaposed tombs of Han Dynasty
According to Rao Chen, a staff member of Guangzhou Institute of cultural relics and archaeology, from July to December this year, in cooperation with the construction of the south entrance of Luhu Park and other node landscape improvement project (yunshanjie area in the front area of Guangzhou Garden), the Institute carried out archaeological investigation and Exploration on the construction scope of the project, and after reporting to the State Administration of cultural relics for approval, carried out rescue archaeological excavation on the ancient tombs found in the exploration. At present, 57 tombs have been cleared, including 11 tombs of Han Dynasty, 13 tombs of Southern Jin Dynasty, 2 tombs of Tang Dynasty, 1 tombs of Song Dynasty, 5 tombs of Ming Dynasty, and 25 tombs of Qing Dynasty. Nearly 500 pieces (sets) of cultural relics, such as pottery, bronze, iron and pearl ornaments, have been unearthed. “The distribution of ancient tombs found in this exploration is very dense, and the phenomenon of late tombs breaking early tombs is frequent. Of the more than 50 tombs that have been cleared, Han tombs and tombs of the Eastern Jin and Southern Dynasties are concentrated, numerous and large-scale. ” Rao Chen said.
The tombs of the Han Dynasty are all tombs with wooden coffins. From the late Western Han Dynasty to the Eastern Han Dynasty, the tombs are well preserved, with rich burial objects, most of which are pottery. In addition, there are bronze swords, bronze mirrors and bronze coins. It is worth mentioning that there are two tombs in parallel at the site, which are named “M27” and “M28” by archaeologists. They are the most abundant burial objects, and the models of Cang, Zao, Jing and Wu have the local characteristics of Lingnan. M28 funerary beads are composed of 260 crystal, agate, amber and other texture beads and tube decorations, which are very exquisite. It is speculated that M27 and M28 are probably the joint burial tombs of the couple.
The tombs of the Eastern Jin Dynasty were generally large-scale, with exquisite construction and regular brick patterns. Although they were often stolen and disturbed, there were still a number of celadon porcelain, talcum pig and other artifacts left. The bricks of one of the tombs have the chronological characters of “four years of Daxing”, which provides an important scale for the study of the dating of the Eastern Jin tombs in Guangzhou.
The ancient people regarded the Mausoleum as a basement, and hengzhigang was very popular near the mountain and water
Why is this place favored by the ancients? Yi Xibing, director of the archaeological project and vice president of Guangzhou Institute of cultural relics and archaeology, pointed out that this is related to the ancients’ concept of “seeing death as life”. “The location of the ancient mausoleum is very exquisite. They regard it as their house under the ground. The environment of this place is very good. There are mountains in the north, water in the west, and the mountain is a relatively low earth mountain, which is very suitable for burial. ” According to reports, the place where the tombs are unearthed belongs to the “guihuagang Shidai gang hengzhigang” underground cultural relics burial area, which is the key burial area of Guangzhou underground ancient tombs. Hengzhigang is located in the Northeast suburb of the ancient city of Guangzhou. It is about 3km away from the center of the ancient city of Guangzhou (now Beijing Road and Zhongshan 4th Road). The Luhu reservoir in the west is a stream from Baiyun Mountain in the Han Dynasty. Since the 1950s, archaeologists have carried out dozens of rescue archaeological exploration and excavation work in hengzhigang area in cooperation with construction projects, cleaned up nearly 1000 tombs from the Han Dynasty to the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and unearthed a large number of cultural relics.
The reporter learned that the on-site archaeological work should be completed by the end of this month. After collecting data in a comprehensive and scientific way and properly preserving the unearthed cultural relics, the archaeologists will cooperate with the urban construction and development, hand over the archaeological site to the site construction party for backfilling and greening.

Uber fined 650 million

Recently, New Jersey fined Uber $649 million, requiring the company to pay overdue employment tax for online car Hailing drivers. New Jersey accused the car Hailing company of mistakenly treating drivers as independent contractors rather than regular employees.
Tencent technology news, represented by Uber, has been faced with a dispute that they regard employees as outsourcing workers rather than formal workers, which is considered to be labor exploitation and harm the interests of practitioners.
New Jersey has fined Uber $649 million, requiring the company to pay overdue employment taxes for online car Hailing drivers, according to foreign media. New Jersey accused the car Hailing company of mistakenly treating drivers as independent contractors rather than regular employees.
According to foreign media reports, in an audit, New Jersey found that from 2014 to 2018, Uber had $530 million in tax arrears in employee unemployment and disability insurance, and then the State Department of labor development this week proposed to Uber and its subsidiary raiser to make up the huge amount of money.
In addition to historical taxes, the state seeks an additional $119 million in interest.
The incident marks a major change in the state’s view of many application based casual economy companies, and is the first time that local governments in the United States have recovered employment taxes from Uber. Today, Uber has hundreds of thousands of drivers in the United States.
A spokesman for Uber said the company questioned the New Jersey findings. “We question this incorrect decision because in New Jersey and elsewhere, hire car drivers are independent contractors.” This is what Alex an Fang, Uber’s spokeswoman, said.
Across the U.S., states and cities are aggressively overhauling small economy companies that rely on cheap, independent labor, which could reshape their business models. Before that, the outside world raised questions and objections to the outsourcing employment mode of the part-time economy, and demanded to change it. However, the part-time economy companies won in some disputes.
In California, a new law will require outsourcers in part-time economic companies to be recognized as regular workers, thus providing them with basic protections such as minimum wage and unemployment insurance.
Similar legislation has emerged in New York, Oregon and Washington, driven by labor groups. In New York City, online car Hailing drivers have not been officially recognized as regular workers, but they can already receive the legal minimum wage.
Last week, the New Jersey Senate passed legislation that would restrict some businesses from treating employees as independent contractors. As regular workers, these employees are entitled to basic protection and benefits, such as overtime pay, health insurance and unemployment insurance.
According to industry agencies, if government regulators or courts require companies such as Uber and LYFT to treat employees as employees, their labor costs could rise by 20-30%.
“The New Jersey Department of labor development is cracking down on the misclassification of employees because it kills our workforce and causes huge economic losses,” the Department’s commissioner, Robert Asaro Angelo, said in a statement.
Some labor organizations in the United States praised the action taken by the New Jersey government.
“This is a sharp attack on the designers of the part-time economy. We hope it can penetrate into other industries.” Bhairavi Desai, executive director of the New York taxi drivers’ Union, said in a statement. “New Jersey is sending the message that the state’s labor laws are not set by private companies.”
According to reports, the New Jersey government conducted an audit of 1% of employers in the state in 2018, which found that more than 12000 employees were wrongly classified as independent contractors. According to the state government, companies understated wages and employment taxes by more than $462 million.
Previously, some Uber car Hailing drivers sued the company in New Jersey, claiming that they should be regular employees and have not been paid enough at present, and have not been able to reimburse their daily operating expenses.
“It’s a double whammy,” said Roosevelt Smith, a New Jersey lawyer who filed a class action lawsuit on behalf of several Internet car hailers.
Uber directly controls when and how long drivers can work, but does not pay overtime, Smith said. In some cases, after deducting the necessary expenses for driving a car, the driver’s salary is not up to the local legal minimum wage level.
“Uber has sufficient control over drivers’ work, so they should be considered regular workers,” Smith said
Uber responded to the class action suit by referring to a requirement in the employment contract that drivers must refer future disputes to arbitration rather than litigation. But Smith thinks his client may be an exception.
These network cars transport passengers to and from airports and railway stations, so they are engaged in cross state business, which can avoid the requirement of compulsory arbitration.
In September, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the third circuit found that a grass-roots judge in New Jersey had wrongly ruled in a case that Uber drivers were not eligible for arbitration exemption from interstate business. In the lawsuit, the online car Hailing driver plaintiff said that they should enjoy the overtime paid by Uber.
Justin swift, a lawyer for the prosecution, said many Uber drivers like the flexibility of the job but don’t think they are independent contractors.
Many drivers like the freedom of scheduling